Marwan is an assistant professor of marketing at Rafik Hariri University, Lebanon, a certified trainer, and a marketing consultant. He has more than 16 years of experience in the field of sales and marketing in the healthcare industry in Lebanon and the Middle East. Marwan has worked for 11 years at highly respected universities having strong programs in business administration in Lebanon. He specializes in strategic marketing, consumer behavior, and marketing communications.
This research study has assessed the ethnocentric tendencies of Lebanese physicians and evaluated the factors influencing their attitude and support towards Middle Easter-made medicines. It has also measured the mediation and moderation effects of various variables and constructs. Data have been collected and analyzed from 210 practicing Lebanese physicians across different governorates using a proportional stratified sample through person-administered surveys. Correlational and structural equation modeling techniques have been applied to test 14 hypotheses and answer the research question. Six constructs: 1) Lebanese physicians’ ethnocentric tendencies, 2) importance of medicine’s characteristics, 3) importance of pharmaceutical company’s marketing, 4) support for Middle Eastern-made medicines, 5) trust in Middle Eastern-made medicines, and 6) marketing of Middle Eastern pharmaceutical companies have been extracted using CFA indicating significant reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. The measurement model and the path model have both provided significant goodness-of-fit. Lebanese physicians’ ethnocentric tendencies had a mean score of 3.87 on a scale of 7, explaining 43% of the variance of the dependent variable having and R2 = .63. The results have shown that Lebanese physicians from different governorates, religions, and patients’ load per day have different ethnocentric tendencies toward Middle Eastern-made medicines. Furthermore, there has been a positive relationship between physicians’ ethnocentric tendencies and their support for Middle Eastern-made medicines. The medicine’s country of origin, its cost, and the trust in Middle Eastern-made medicines have positively mediated this relationship. Importance of medicine’s characteristics has positively moderated it, while negatively has the recommendation of medicine by peers and colleagues. This study has provided the first measure of physicians’ ethnocentric tendencies with a focus on Lebanon and the Middle East pharmaceutical industry using a modified CETSCALE. It has presented valuable managerial implications for global and Middle Eastern pharmaceutical companies operating in Lebanon by helping brand managers build more successful marketing strategies, regarding segment targeting, positioning, pricing, communications, and distribution. Future research is recommended in countries other than Lebanon to validate the new scales.
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